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On September 9, 2001, commander Ahmad Shah Massoud was assassinated in Afghanistan. 9/11 occurred two days later. This was the first in attacks that Al Qaeda carried out in NY and DC, and the U.S. reacted by bombing and invading Afghanistan. When American troops arrived to secure stability and reconstruction, many Afghans hoped for peace and democracy - their expectations would soon be shattered.
Although the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan was over, ethnic groups and Mujahideen factions kept fighting. And so, the country entered into a ruthless Civil War. With Pakistan's support and the blessing of the clergy, the Taliban emerged and triumphed, turning Afghanistan into a lab for a new type of Islamic state and the training ground for Osama bin Laden's terrorist network.
In 1979, the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan; Afghans called for Jihad. The country turned into the epicenter of a struggle between Islam and Communism. The U.S. and the Arab world sent weapons and money to the Afghan resistance and foreign fighters, including a young Osama Bin Laden, joined in. A decade later, the Mujahideen pushed back the occupation, contributing to the Soviet Union's collapse.
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